Last updated: 1 March 2021
This Carbon Management Plan (CMP) outlines the University of Gloucestershire’s approach to carbon reduction for the period 2018 to 2022, whilst also setting the direction of travel to meet longer‐term targets for 2030 and 2050. It recognises the importance of adopting a long‐term view
on carbon management as some reductions can only be achieved by taking advantage of opportunities as other developments are planned such as changes to the estates portfolio, IT strategy, or the adoption of smart working.
Three goals are proposed to help ensure the University achieves current and future proposed targets, increases the amount of renewable energy generated on site, and frames carbon
reductions in the co text of appropriate key activity measures:
These goals will help the University meet previously identified sector targets, achieve proposed Government HE and public sector targets for 2020 and 2030, and set course to achieve the national target of reducing carbon emissions by 80% by 2050 against a 1990 baseline. The drivers for carbon reduction are set out in section 2 and the strategic direction in section 4.
Actions taken over the lifetime of the previous carbon management plan have seen impressive reductions in carbon of over 40% by 2016/17 against the 2005/06 baseline, as outlined in section 3. However, these reductions have been achieved through measures such as swapping to cleaner fuels for boilers, building insulation, partial roll out of LED lighting, better building management controls, and the disposal of older, less efficient parts of the estate. In addition, the rapid decarbonisation of grid supplied electricity as fossil fuels are increasingly replaced by energy from renewable sources has helped reduce the University’s carbon emissions.
The challenge for this revised CMP is to maintain the momentum of carbon reduction as the estate grows and as solutions become more complex, sometimes more costly, and require close integration with existing systems to maximise savings. Section 5 outlines how the plan is to be implemented with appendices 1 and 2 providing more detail on specific measures proposed.
It is proposed that maximum use is made of improved metering of energy. This will allow better targeting of energy saving measures and for design solutions to be compiled when parts of the estate are developed or repurposed. This is particularly important when new buildings are developed as in‐use energy use is often two to three times higher than that forecast at the design stage.
At a time of very limited funding and an increasing emphasis on value for money it is necessary to look at innovative means to fund carbon reduction projects to maximise energy savings, provide a reasonable payback period and effectively manage risk. This plan acknowledges that funding for carbon reduction projects is severely limited until at least 2020/21 and proposes taking forward carbon reduction chiefly by accessing external funding and concentrating on staff and student engagement as well as reducing energy use by IT equipment over years 2018/19 and 2019/20.
There may be some opportunities to install energy saving measures but these will mostly be small scale and carried out as part of other refurbishment work. The opportunity of creating a recycling fund from which to fund carbon saving projects, topped up with Government provided zero interest funding, will be investigated in 2020. Section 6 outlines these proposals.
Primary responsibility for the CMP lies with the Estates Management Team, section 7 outlines a robust approach to estates programme management to ensure actions are reliably implemented over the duration of this plan. It includes critical factors for success such as involvement at the design stage, effective monitoring and measurement, engagement with students and staff, reporting, and communication between teams with a role to play in carbon reductions such as IT and Sustainability.
Additional benefits expected to accrue from a successful CMP include:
1 At the 2018 Students Union AGM held on 16 April, a motion was passed to lobby the university to demonstrably show an increase in renewable energy.
1.1 The University of Gloucestershire has a long‐established commitment to sustainability, having pioneered the development of an institution‐wide approach connecting its operational and academic activities. Sustainability is one of the University’s key values and is embedded within its Strategic Plan 2017‐2022 as one of the strategic enablers for the delivery of its core goals. The Estates Strategy 2017‐22 confirms the commitment of the Estates Team to the reduction in carbon emissions from buildings as well as through travel and transportation activities ‐ and by ensuring new buildings are energy efficient and that space is used effectively.
This overall institutional commitment has been recognised externally through a consistent First Class position in the UK universities’ sustainability league since it began. In 2017 the University achieved second place in this league, scoring 100% for carbon management.
An ISO 14001 compliant environmental management system has been in place for operational and academic activities since 2002 in which objectives are set to reduce waste, energy and carbon emissions. This system was upgraded to the latest 2015 version of the standard in 2017.
1.2 This CMP 2018‐2022 updates the first CMP approved by the University in 2011, following the requirement from HEFCE in 2010 that all Higher Education institutions must set a target for reducing carbon emissions by 2020, monitor and report on carbon emissions, and achieve actual emissions reductions appropriate to their institution.
1.3 Carbon dioxide is produced when fossil fuels such as gas, oil or diesel are burnt in air to produce energy for heating, electricity generation, or transport. Carbon emissions are categorised as:
1.4 In 2010 HEFCE required universities to commit to reducing scope 1 and 2 emissions and to measure their scope 3 emissions. In its 2011 CMP the University committed to achieve the following reductions in scope 1 and scope 2 emissions compared to a 2005/06 baseline:
o 30% reduction by 2013/14,
o 40% reduction by 2019/20, o Towards an overall reduction of 80% by 2049/50.
The 2011 plan provided a baseline for scope 3 emissions for activities such as waste, water use, business travel, staff and student commuting, and procurement, setting targets for reductions by 2019/20. These are summarised in section 4.6. Monitoring and measuring scope 3 emissions is a difficult process with a variety of methods available with varying degrees of uncertainty. However, in 2018 the Environmental Association of Universities and Colleges (EAUC) and the Association of University Directors of Estates (AUDE), with the support of the former HEFCE, produced outline guidance and key steps to allow more consistent assessment of scope 3 emissions. Scope 3 emissions will be assessed using this approach to enable consistent comparisons from year to year, and with other HEIs.
1.5 The Sustainability Strategy 2017‐2022 and Estates Strategy 2017‐2022 affirm the University’s ongoing commitment to carbon reduction and to meeting the 40% target for 2019/20. The carbon emissions for 2016/17 and those forecast for 2017/18 show that the University is broadly on track to meet the 2019/20 target, with emissions having reduced by 46% between 2005/06 and 2016/17. The main reason for the drop is that the university has
significantly reduced its use of fossil fuels for space heating and, although electricity use has also dropped, it has not shown the same level of reduction – much of this is due to lighting, cooling and increased use of IT hardware. Section 3 outlines the reductions since 2005/06.
1.6 However, whilst this performance is encouraging it must be set against a background of growth in the University’s estate and in student numbers, which may lead to an increase in carbon emissions. In particular, the opening of the Business School Growth Hub at Oxstalls campus will increase electricity consumption and carbon emissions.
1.7 Three key goals are proposed to reduce absolute emissions by 2021/22, to increase the amount of renewable energy generated, and to develop activity‐based indicators of carbon which better suit a growing university.
2.1 This CMP has been developed in response to a range of drivers, both internal and external. These are outlined in this section, taking account of their significance and the potential benefits for the University of progressing its carbon management objectives.
2.2.1 Global developments
Climate scientists worldwide are increasingly clear about global warming resulting from greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity and its impact on the earth’s climate system. The global average temperature has risen by 0.85° Celsius and global sea level has risen by 19cm since the late 19th century3. This has also resulted in acidification of the oceans, declining glaciers and sea ice, changes to weather patterns, and disruption to habitats.
The first international effort to tackle climate change was the 1992 Kyoto Protocol in which 37 industrialised countries set a target to reduce their emissions by an average of 5% below 1990 levels for the period 2008 to 2012.
2.2.2 Paris Agreement 2015
In 2015, 195 countries agreed stretching carbon reduction targets to ensure that global temperatures do not rise by more than 2° Celsius above pre‐industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the rise to no more than 1.5° Celsius. 2°C was chosen as the maximum acceptable rise as, above this, the risks and impacts of climate change such as dramatically higher seas, changes in weather patterns, food and water crises, become unacceptable ‐ bringing new levels of disruption and conflict for societies.
2.2.3 UK Climate Change Act 2008
This Act was the first legislation in the world to set legally binding carbon reduction targets through a series of five‐year carbon budgets. It requires a reduction of 80% of carbon emissions by 2050, and by 34% by 2020, both against a 1990 baseline. These carbon budgets have been set and run until 2032; the first budget has been achieved and the second and third budgets are on track to be achieved. Concerted work is now needed to achieve the required 51% reduction in carbon emissions by 2025 against a 1990 baseline as specified in the fourth budget.
2.2.4 UK Industrial Strategy
In 2016 the Government published the Industrial Strategy, setting out a long‐term plan to boost the productivity of the UK through five foundation approaches: ideas, people, infrastructure, business environment, and places ‐ working with industry, academia and the civil society. Clean growth is one of the first four Grand Challenges, which encompasses the development, manufacture and use of low carbon technologies, systems and services, as well as growing GDP while cutting carbon emissions.
3 UN Intergovernmental Committee on Climate Change: Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report, Guidance for Policymakers http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment‐report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf
2.2.5 UK Clean Growth Strategy 2017
To support the Industrial Strategy, the Government published its Clean Growth Strategy in 2017, setting out proposals around business and industrial efficiency and ensuring the public sector demonstrates leadership. Recognising that the public sector has reduced emissions by
40% since 1990, further reductions are sought by setting a voluntary carbon reduction target for the public and higher education sectors of 30% by 2020/21 against a 2009/10 baseline. Guidance published by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) in April 2018 proposed that public sector organisations should voluntarily report their annual
carbon emissions and invited them to sign up to the Emissions Reduction Pledge 2020. For participating universities, it is proposed that emissions data will be collected via the established Estates Management Record process starting in Spring 2019.
In 2020 the Government will review progress against the target with a view to setting a more ambitious potentially mandatory target, such as 50% by 2030 (against the same 2009/10 baseline).
2.3.1 EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
This wide ranging directive (in force since 2006) sets out to promote improvement of the energy performance of buildings through cost effective measures and to promote the convergence of building standards across the EU Energy performance certification is required for all new buildings and when existing buildings are rented out or sold on, known as EPCs. There is also a requirement for all public buildings with a floor area over 250m2 to show a display energy certificate (DEC) in a prominent position within the building.
2.3.2 Building Regulations – Part L
Part L of the Building Regulations sets out requirements for energy efficiency and the effective control of buildings and associated plant. These regulations apply to both new buildings and refurbishments, controlling factors such as the insulation values of building elements, air permeability of the structure, heating efficiency of boilers, and lighting efficiency. Part L
guidance is currently the major driver for the increase in energy efficiency and carbon reduction in new and refurbished buildings.
2.3.3 HE Sector Requirements
In 2010 sector guidance produced by HEFCE required each university to report its carbon emissions, set a carbon reduction target for 2020, and produce a CMP or strategy. These actions supported targets for the sector of a 43% carbon reduction by 2020 and an 83% reduction by 2050 against a 2005 baseline – with performance linked to capital funding. The newly formed Office for Students has not issued any guidance on carbon reduction targets and differs in focus and function to HEFCE. It is likely that in this context, HE sector reductions will now be taken forward via the Emissions Reduction Pledge outlined in section 2.2.5 above.
2.4.1 Climate Change Levy
Introduced in 2001, the Climate Change Levy (CCL) is a tax on electricity and gas added to the energy bills of businesses in an effort to incentivise them to reduce energy use and to use or generate energy from renewable sources. However, electricity generated from nuclear sources was subject to the CCL from the outset and, in the budget of 2015, CCL was expanded
to apply to energy purchased from renewable sources. The abolition of the 2010 Carbon Reduction Commitment emissions trading scheme in 2019 means that the Government will seek to close the resulting shortfall in tax revenue by increasing CCL rates for all business energy users whether they were required to participate in the CRC or not.
From April 2019 the CCL will therefore rise by 45% for electricity and by 67% for gas. As the CCL is effectively a tax on energy from non‐renewable sources, the impact of this rise can be partly mitigated by generating more energy from renewable sources.
2.4.2 Energy cost volatility
The increasing volatility of energy prices and the level of energy costs have become growing concerns to large consumers of energy. The impact of conflicts around the world on oil prices, the reliance on imported fuels from less stable countries, and the reduction in the amount of storage capacity for gas have also made energy price volatility a major concern nationally.
In addition, the sustained reduction in the cost of renewable energy, its intermittency, and its impact on grid capacity planning, have led to new pressures on the distribution network, which will lead to additional costs in order to better balance supply and demand. These additional costs for the Electricity Market Reform are just the latest in a number of third party
costs which have driven up energy prices. Since 2011 the growth in third party costs has been responsible for most of the rise in the price of energy and is expected to account for over two thirds of energy costs by 2020.
2.4.3 Value for money
As the HE sector continues to come under scrutiny in terms of value for money, it is increasingly important that all areas of expenditure are assessed for cost saving potential. Annual energy costs for the Further and Higher Education (FHE) sector are around £400 million, resulting in carbon emissions of around 3 million tonnes per year ‐ but with the Carbon Trust estimating that these emissions can be reduced by as much as 25% potentially. In this growing sector, student numbers have increased by a factor of five over the past thirty years, bringing increased energy consumption, particularly for research‐focused institutions. The sector is under increasing pressure to provide optimum learning facilities on a limited budget, with better energy management potentially enabling funds to be diverted towards improvements to learning environments.
2.5.1 Strategic Alignment
The University’s Strategic Plan 2017‐2022 positions sustainability as one of its six key enablers, alongside effective Estates and IT infrastructure. The Estates Strategy 2017‐2022 makes a commitment to supporting the reduction of carbon emissions, including travel and transportation activities, effective management of university space, targeting the BREEAM
“Excellent” standard as the minimum level for development work, and using a life cycle approach to carbon and cost implications when considering project scope and definition. The Sustainability Strategy 2017‐2022 includes the commitment to develop a new CMP aligned to the Estates Strategy objectives, as part of its continual improvement approach and the setting of progression targets for all its operational sustainability parameters, including energy, carbon and water.
2.5.2 Performance Monitoring
The University’s ISO 14001: 2015 Environmental Management System includes specific objectives for carbon emissions reduction and provides a rigorous and transparent system for monitoring and reporting to senior management. The EMS includes internal and external audits to assure compliance, and carbon and energy targets are included in the series of performance indicators reported via the University’s Annual Sustainability Report.
2.5.3 Organisational Resilience
Reducing the University’s reliance on externally supplied energy, as well as increasing the amount of energy generated on site, reduces the potential impact of interruptions to energy supplies for core operations and minimises exposure to price shocks. As the energy sector moves towards a low carbon future, with increasing generation of electricity from renewables, potential vulnerabilities are emerging due to the weather dependencies of these sources. Future use of battery technology with solar pv, Combined Heat and Power sources, and district energy systems, can assist in improving longer‐term resilience and are considered essential to the long‐term perspective of this plan.
2.6.1 Student Interest
There is a continuing need to meet student expectations that the University will maintain its action on sustainability and to support their learning and employability prospects in this area. The NUS Skills Survey (2017/18) revealed that 84% of University of Gloucestershire student respondents think universities should actively promote sustainability. In addition, the
International Student Barometer reported that in 2017 85% of University of Gloucestershire students surveyed said they were satisfied or very satisfied with the University’s eco‐friendly attitude. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are increasingly visible and, as signatories to the tertiary sector’s SDG Accord, the University annually reports its contribution to the SDGs, including goals for clean energy and climate action.
2.6.2 Corporate Profile
HE institutions are increasingly ranked using public league tables and performance on carbon reduction is key to maintaining positive profile in these rankings. Carbon management elements carry significant weight in the People and Planet University League and maintenance of its established First Class position is one of the KPIs reported annually to University Council. In the wider public domain, an organisation called Brite Green publishes annual rankings of universities’ performance against carbon reduction targets. In 2017 the University was ranked 24th of 126 universities for carbon emissions reduction – showing steady improvement and retaining its position in the top third of universities succeeding in delivering significant carbon reductions.
2.6.3 Modelling Good Practice
The University has a clear role as an anchor institution within the region and through its established good practice can provide leadership to students, employees, suppliers, local communities and businesses on sustainability. Supported by its Growth Hub and engagement with the Local Enterprise Partnership, this can include support to, and collaboration with,
other local and regional organisations to encourage the development of low carbon goods and services, assisting the sustainability ambitions of the county. There is an international element to this leadership as the University hosts the UN Regional Centre of Expertise for the Severn region in sustainability education, providing a vehicle for work to support and advise local organisations, particularly third sector actors and SMEs, on carbon management.
3.1. In 2011, following HEFCE guidance to the sector, the University agreed a CMP in which it committed to reducing scope 1 and scope 2 carbon dioxide emissions by 30% by 2013/14 and 40% by 2019/20 compared to a 2005/06 baseline. This section reviews the emissions reductions made to date.
3.2 The graph below shows the University’s annual carbon dioxide emissions, with the dotted line indicating the required track to achieving the 2013/14 then 2019/20 targets.
Carbon emissions 2005/6 to 2016/17 including 2013/14 and 2019/20 targets
The 2013/14 target required earlier, steeper reductions and the graph shows that the 2013/14 target was missed. This was partly due to the estate growing by 13% between 2011/12 and 2014/15 leading to a 5.5% rise in energy use over the same period. The marked drop since 2014/15 has been due to a reduction in gas use of 15%, electricity use by 18% plus a reduction in the carbon intensity of grid supplied electricity of 11% as less coal was used for generation.
3.3 By 2016/17 the University’s carbon emissions were 46% less than the 2005/06 baseline, indicating an early over achievement against the 40% target. However, this reduction is unlikely to be sustained, due to the opening of the Business School Growth Hub at Oxstalls in Autum 2018. The effect of this development, without further improvements being made, is outlined in section 3.6.
3.4 Carbon reductions and energy efficiency improvements over the life of the 2011 CMP have mostly been achieved by switching boilers to cleaner fuels, introducing some LED lighting, using automatic monitoring and targeting software, better building management controls, improved
insulation, and matching supplied voltages to equipment needs. Although more can be done to roll out some of these solutions such as LED lighting, these measures can regarded as low hanging fruit and new strategic approaches will be required to maintain progress.
3.5 Also of note is that the last five years have seen a marked reduction in the carbon intensity of grid supplied electricity, dropping by 36% as more renewables enter the mix and coal burning declines (dropping from 0.45 to 0.28 kg CO2e/kWh). This trend is likely to continue, although perhaps not at the same rate, so cannot be relied upon to assure delivery against the target.
3.6 The opening of the Business School Growth Hub in Autumn 2018 presents a challenge to reducing carbon emissions as the heating, lighting and operation of the building is likely to generate carbon emissions of at least 130 tonnes per year. This is despite energy efficient air source heat pumps being installed which extract energy from the outside air and concentrate it to heat the building. However, emissions could be considerably higher as there is often a large disparity between forecast energy use at the design stage and actual use once facilities are in operation, with CIBSE noting that energy use and carbon emissions are sometimes twice or three times that predicted. This could potentially affect the achievement of the current 2019/20 target and put the proposed 2021/22 target at risk unless mitigation works are undertaken elsewhere.
3.7 Performance to date indicates that the University will achieve the proposed public and HE sector target proposed by BEIS for 2020/21 outlined in section 2.2.5, as the target proposed is not unduly challenging in the context of performance to date.
4.1 As outlined in section 3, the University has seen considerable success in reducing its scope 1 & 2 carbon emissions and has overachieved against the 40% target for 2019/20, albeit with the risk of emissions rising as the new building at Oxstalls open in Autumn 2018.
4.2 Direct emissions (scope 1 & 2) Three types of targets are proposed in order to drive progress for the duration of this CMP to 2022 and further:
4.2.1 Absolute target – following the current sector practice and proposed BEIS targets of reducing overall carbon emissions by a certain date against an agreed baseline.
4.2.2 Renewables target – a target to increase the amount of renewable energy generated by the University by a certain date.
4.2.3 Activity based targets – targets proportionate to another parameter such as number of students and staff, gross internal area or income. As the HE sector grows, universities are increasingly assessing carbon emissions using activity‐based targets to monitor efficiency gains. Typical measures used are tonnes of carbon per FTE, per square metre of gross internal
area, or per £million of income.
4.3 Absolute targets
In setting a new scope 1 and 2 emissions target for the period to 2022 it is important to ensure that reasonable progress is maintained. This will ensure that the proposed BEIS target for 2020/21 is achieved and that an adequate trajectory is set to achieve the proposed BEIS 2030/31 target. As noted in 2.2.5, this target may become mandatory for the public and HE
sector depending on their progress against the 30% voluntary target. A commitment to a 3% per year reduction should ensure that sufficient progress is made and allows for the impact of any future increases in energy use to be mitigated.
The Estates Strategy outlines the University’s ambition to increase student numbers by at least a third, requiring the provision of additional space. It notes that some of this additional activity will be delivered away from main sites through apprenticeships, online delivery, and collaborative partnerships but some increase in space provision will be required. Unless
innovative energy strategies are employed, the addition of space will lead to higher energy use and a rise in carbon emissions.
The graph below shows progress to date along with forecasts for emissions for the 2017/18 to 2019/20 period. Despite the increased use of gas for heating during the unusually cold Winter and Spring of 2017/18, carbon emissions are likely to have increased only marginally because of the reduction in carbon intensity of grid supplied electricity, as outlined in section 3.5. If the carbon intensity remains stable then the additional emissions from the Business School Growth Hub opening at the beginning of academic year 2018/19 will lead to overall emissions only approaching around 2,600 tonnes.
All other things being equal this should mean that the University achieves its 2019/20 target of a 40% reduction compared to a 2005/06 baseline, although fluctuations in energy use from year to year could put this compliance at risk. Finally, the proposed target for 2021/22 is indicated, with the dotted line showing that this is target is broadly in line with the overall trend in emissions reductions since 2005/06.
Carbon emissions 2005/06 to 2016/17 and forecast to 2019/20 showing proposed 2021/22 target
Goal 1: The University of Gloucestershire will reduce scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions by 46% by 2021/22 from a 2005/06 baseline
4.4 Renewables target
In order to mitigate the rise in electricity costs, improve resilience, and embed long‐term reductions in carbon emissions it is further proposed that a target for on‐site renewable energy generation is set. Currently around 45,000kWh of electricity is generated from solar pv installations at Oxstalls and Park, saving circa 16 tonnes of carbon and avoiding annual grid electricity costs of approximately £5,500. A target is proposed to double the quantity of electricity produced from renewable sources and to investigate the feasibility of storing the energy produced. Renewable sources include solar pv, solar thermal, air source and ground source heat pumps. It is proposed that this additional renewables capacity would be funded using one or more power purchase agreements (see section 6.4 for details).
The University has procured electricity from 100% renewable sources since 1993 which helps strengthen the demand for renewable energy nationally, assists with the University league table scores, and provides a positive sustainability commitment. This is also important in the context of the Students’ Union AGM vote in 2018 seeking an increase in the University’s
commitment to renewable energy.
Goal 2: The University of Gloucestershire will increase the amount of electricity generated from renewable sources to at least 90,000kWh by 2021/22 and will investigate options for energy storage. The University will continue to support the increased provision of renewable energy over the grid by maintaining its commitment to purchase electricity from 100% renewable sources.
4.5 Activity based targets
The University compares well to other HEIs in terms of activity‐based measures with Brite Green reporting that in 2017 the University’s league table position improved from 54th to 42nd for emissions relative to income and for emissions relative to floor area the position improved even further, from 63rd to 40th. However, changes in the estate and in student and staff
numbers will mean these measures will vary over the next year making it difficult to set a reliable baseline upon which to assess these targets. It is proposed that activity based targets are set at the first annual review of the CMP once reliable data is obtained. Activity based indicators for carbon are included within the Annual Sustainability Report and complement joint working with space management activities within Estates.
Goal 3: The University of Gloucestershire will set activity‐based targets for tonnes of carbon per square metre of GIA, per FTE, and per £1m of income, at the first annual review of the CMP.
4.6 Indirect emissions (scope 3)
As outlined in section 1.3, scope 3 emissions arise from the activities of the University but from sources not under its direct control such as the procurement of good and serves, business travel, and student and staff commuting. A baseline for scope 3 emissions for key activities has been set and targets agreed as follows (note that in some cases different baseline years are used depending on the availability of data and survey results):
|Area of activity||Baseline |
|Waste production and|
|Water use and|
|Student travel from|
home to university
Monitoring and measuring scope 3 emissions is a difficult process with a variety of methods available with varying degrees of uncertainty. However, in 2018 the Environmental Association of Universities and Colleges (EAUC) and the Association of University Directors of Estates (AUDE), with the support of the former HEFCE, produced outline guidance and key steps to
allow more consistent assessment of scope 3 emissions. Scope 3 emissions will be assessed using this approach to enable consistent comparisons from year to year, and with other HEIs.
4.7 Embedding carbon management
There is a need to embed carbon management more effectively within the organisation to ensure that the goals are achieved and that it is resilient in the light of changing conditions over the life of the plan. The engagement matrix at appendix 3 identifies that the University can improve student and staff engagement with carbon management by enhancing communications – this will form part of the implementation plan in section 5.
4.8 Energy procurement
The University currently procures its energy via TEC (The Energy Consortium) which is a contracting authority owned by its members, providing energy procurement services to the HE and FE sectors as well as the wider public sector. The University works closely with TEC using a flexible energy procurement approach in order to buy energy for the lowest possible price.
In contrast to fixed energy rates this approach allows the University to take advantage of price changes in the energy market and to spread the price risk over a number of purchasing decisions throughout the year. This dynamic method of purchasing energy allows an acceptable balance to be maintained between price and budget certainty, reflecting the University’s appetite for risk.
4.9 Energy policy
It is proposed that the current heating policy is revised to include energy used for applications other than space heating, such as cooling, lighting, and IT. This policy would help provide clarity to users of university buildings, operational and residential, support purchasing decisions for
energy and equipment, identify how energy use is to be measured and monitored, inform the design stage of buildings, and raise awareness with students and staff.
5.1 Project development
A range of projects have been developed to reduce carbon emissions by the following means:
For some of these projects the costs and savings in energy and carbon can be identified immediately but for others more work is required to set sensible baselines and to set realistic reduction targets. For example, the potential savings from improved power management of PCs cannot be assessed until a new network power management tool called SCCM is introduced in late 2018. Similarly, the potential savings from engaging with students and staff to reduce their energy use will not be known until an accurate baseline energy consumption of specific buildings within the estate can be set.
5.2 Summary of projects
|Type of |
|Proposed measures||Estimated |
|Insulation||– Roof and wall insulation|
– Improvements to glazing for buildings at Park, FCH, HW
– Draughtproofing at FCH, HW & Park
– Radiator reflector foils
|Lighting|| – LED roll out across estate|
– Lighting controls e.g. proximity and daylight sensors
– Contingent upgrades upon
refurbishments or retasking of space
|Heating / cooling||– Free cooling of server rooms (Park & FCH)|
– Upgrade of air con units to invertor drive versions
– Upgrade of fume cupboards
– Replacement of fans/motors with invertor units
– Timers on catering equipment
|– BMS optimisation|
– Zoning of open access areas for
heating & lighting
– Link to space management planning
|IT||– Low energy desktop options|
– Improved power management via SCCM e.g. power down when inactive,
auto switch off and wake for upgrades
– Increasing use of cloud based resources
– baseline to
be set in
|Renewables||– Solar pv (potential PPA approach)|
– Air source heat pump installation on refurbishment where feasible
|Electric vehicles||– Replace proportion of fleet with EV|
|– Engagement with students through Live Smart programme|
– Engagement with staff through provision of quick guidance and online communications
|Requires investigation||Requires investigation|
Alongside these projects which directly deliver carbon savings are a number of complementary projects which will be developed to assist in the delivery of carbon savings in future:
|Type of measure||Proposed measures|
|Metering||– Improve monitoring and metering to allow building management systems to be fine tuned|
|Procurement||– Life cycle costing for energy and carbon for new equipment and buildings|
|District energy||– Connection of Elwes heating system to Waterworth boilers upon Elwes boilers reaching the end of their lives|
|Combined Heat and Power||– Consider replacement when existing boilers reach end of life|
|Water|| – Water saving features to reduce domestic hot water|
5.3 Schedule for implementation
Whilst the identification of physical projects is valuable to plan how carbon and energy reductions will be made, the current limitations on spending and borrowing (see section 6) mean that very limited funding will be available for years 2018/19 and 2019/20 with no guarantee that full funding will be available after then.
It’s therefore proposed that only those projects requiring little or no internal funding are implemented in years 2018/19 and 2019/20 of this plan, as outlined below:
as part of
as part of
|Estates team||Development of|
|LTI||Set baseline and|
and roll out of
to students and
to students and
to students and
5.4 User engagement
While the carbon reductions for this plan will be achieved mainly through the work outlined in 5.3, effective delivery of the plan will require student and staff awareness and the active engagement of these key user groups to help reduce carbon. This helps to assure responsible energy use not just to meet these targets but as an enhancement approach to achieve future
As identified in the engagement matrix at appendix 3 communication and engagement are areas where attention is required to ensure carbon management is embedded within the University.A programme of activities for students will be developed with Student Services and the SU to ensure that, as key clients and users, they are engaged in carbon and energy reduction to help achieve the carbon targets. This has been piloted in 2018 as the Live Smart scheme and will be evaluated with a view to rolling out in academic year 2018/19. Equally important will be the way in which teams such as Estates, LTI and Sustainability work collaborate in a user‐friendly
and pragmatic way to ensure the plan delivers the required carbon reductions.
Similarly, the support of staff will be crucial in achieving the goals of this plan in a number of ways. For example, staff procuring goods and services have already increased their awareness of sustainable procurement procedures in which a life cycle approach is adopted. Other ways in which we must engage productively with our staff include IT use policies which affect how power use of PCs is managed, and heating and ventilation approaches within buildings.
Clear and effective communication is required in order to enlist the support of staff teams, students and other stakeholders in the delivery of this plan, including contractors and suppliers, whose support for energy and carbon reduction measures plays an important role in achieving our targets. In particular, suppliers of equipment and our catering contractors are important in helping cut emissions from a life cycle and day‐to‐day operational perspective.
Communication with external organisations will be important both in demonstrating the reductions in carbon achieved by the University, but also to signal our readiness to lead on carbon reduction for the region and collaborate to move towards a low carbon future. An example would be to promote community level generation of electricity and the introduction of
district energy networks, where the involvement of motivated local anchor institutions can dramatically improve the feasibility of broader schemes, providing benefits for many local stakeholders.
Progress with the plan will be communicated to the wider University community via the University’s Annual Sustainability Report, Estates webpages and newsletters as well as updates on high visibility projects. The Annual Sustainability Report is the key means by which progress is communicated externally, along with the University’s Sustainability website and social media feeds, to help ensure students and staff are effectively engaged, with the RCE Severn network providing an additional external facing communication platform with local stakeholders. An infographic approach is used to effectively communicate more complex issues such as carbon management and to make it easier for stakeholders to engage.
Detailed and timely information on energy use is vital to evaluating the results of carbon reduction projects but also to identify future opportunities for improvements. The Estates team has made significant improvements to the coverage and granularity of metering to ensure energy use is closely monitored to allow the effect of improvements to be accurately assessed.
This improved metering provides many opportunities to examine energy use more forensically against other parameters such as weather, time of day, and occupancy levels. Statistical analysis techniques will be employed to model use and identify where new projects can be developed and building management systems optimised.
Enhanced metering also complements information provided by TEC (The Energy Consortium), which procures the University’s energy, to provide reassurance that the optimum balance between price of energy and an acceptable level of risk is achieved throughout the year. In the long term it is planned to begin to bring together data on energy use, occupancy, IT use
and environmental variables to develop a model of our space within buildings, exploring the impact of these variables in order to further refine building management controls and to work towards developing smart spaces. This will also support smarter working practices as work can
increasingly be carried out in new places and with fewer physical resources, allowing progress to be made in reducing scope 3 emissions arising from staff commuting and business travel.
5.7 Factors for success
Alongside the commitments to funding and staff resource there are a number of factors that are key to the success of the carbon reduction measures identified and to the embedding of continual improvements. Some are identified as areas of improvement from the engagement
matrix at appendix 3. Others include:
6.1 Internal financing
Energy and carbon reduction projects would normally be funded through the Estates Maintenance Plan budget (which forms part of the Five Year Capital Programme) as many of the projects deliver ongoing energy savings as well as savings on maintenance costs. For example, the upgrading of fluorescent lighting to an LED equivalent not only saves around 80% in energy use, but can avoid maintenance costs of around £84 for each light fitting over an average 15 year lifespan (600x600mm 4 tube ceiling fitting).
However, for years 2018/19 and 2019/20 the Maintenance Plan budget will be unable to cover energy reduction projects due to competing pressures elsewhere. Furthermore it is likely that the budget will continue to be under pressure in 2020/21 due to a backlog in maintenance issues arising from the lack of spend in the previous two years.
It is therefore likely that no carbon reduction projects can be supported in 2018/19 and 2019/20 unless they can be carried out contingent with larger refurbishment schemes.
6.2 External sources of financing
Given the extremely limited availability of internal funding over the next two to three years, options for external funding to assist with carbon saving projects have been explored, especially new funding models which have recently evolved. These break down into three main sources:
interest free loans from Government, power purchase agreements, and energy performance contracting.
6.3 SalixSalix Funding is an agency of the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) which provides interest free funding to the public sector to improve energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions and lower energy bills. They provide support in two ways, either through
interest free loans for prescribed energy efficiency measures paying back within five years or less, or by providing funding to organisations to set up a recycling fund. The recycling fund approach is more flexible and allows an organisation to more effectively combine projects allowing shorter payback measures to cross subsidise those with payback periods over five
The University accessed Salix funding to assist with the conversion of oil fired boilers to cleaner gas versions at Park campus, with the debt being repaid in September 2017. However, currently the University is operating under borrowing restrictions which means that any further borrowing
will have to be closely scrutinised to ensure payback periods are short and that risk is minimised.
6.4 Power Purchase Agreements
Power purchase agreements (PPA) are increasingly being adopted to install renewable energy equipment such as solar photovoltaic panels without having to find upfront capital funding. A PPA is a long‐term contract under which a business agrees to purchase electricity directly from an energy generator instead of purchasing electricity from the grid. The energy generator provides the capital funding for the renewable energy equipment, maintaining and monitoring it over the lifetime of the contract in return for the business agreeing to purchase energy at a reduced rate for typically 20 to 25 years. The rate paid for each unit of electricity is significantly less than the grid rate, typically 3 to 4 pence per kWh lower, and is indexed (usually to the RPI) to increase over the term of the contract. This provides a hedge against future electricity price rises and price shocks, especially in the light of the forecast rise in third party costs described in
section 2.4.2. At the end of the contract the business can typically buy the installation for a nominal amount such as £1 or require its removal.
In addition to the free supply and installation of a renewable energy resource, advantages include financial certainty around energy costs for the long term via a fixed electricity price rising at an agreed rate, substantial energy cost savings, and reduced carbon emissions.
Appendix 4 provides further information on PPAs including the benefits and considerations as well as summarising a possible proposal submitted by an energy services company.
The graph below outlines the scale of the cumulative savings achievable using a PPA vs grid supplied electricity for a 120kW peak solar pv system, which is the typical size of array feasible for both Park and Oxstalls campuses. This array is roughly twice the size of the one currently
located at Oxstalls and could supply around 100,000 kWh, approximately 2.5% of the entire University’s annual electricity demand. The two lines show the cumulative cost of electricity supplied by the grid and via a PPA over a period of 25 years. Assumptions are that PPA prices are indexed to increase by 3% each year, electricity prices rise by 5% each year, and that the starting costs for grid supplied and PPA supplied electricity are 12.56 and 9.05 pence per kWh respectively. Cumulatively the PPA cost is around 55% of the cost of grid supplied electricity.
6.5 Energy Performance Contracting (EPC)
EPC is a means for organisations to retrofit existing buildings with energy saving and energy generation measures. These measures improve the energy performance of their buildings, thereby reducing carbon emissions and achieving substantial annual cost savings – these savings are guaranteed by the Service Provider under the contract. EPCs form the basis of the Re:fit public sector model which originated in London and has invested £102 million in over 550 buildings realising energy savings of over £7 million per year.
The Service Provider designs and implements Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and guarantees the level of energy savings, thus offering a secured financial saving over the period of the agreement. This savings stream is used as the basis to fund the cost of improvements and services from the Service Provider. Once the costs have been repaid the university should be able to keep the full savings generated from the improvements. A key benefit is that the Service Provider takes on the risk of delivering the stated savings and will pay the difference in the eventuality that forecast savings are not realised, for this reason robust monitoring and verification arrangements must be agreed and established from the outset.
However, it is unlikely that EPC is an option for the foreseeable future as these agreements are often over long time periods and involve large amounts being borrowed.
6.6 Financing options
The current constraints on the maintenance budget and restrictions on borrowing suggest that that only the Power Purchase Agreement approach is currently viable. Discussions with energy providers have already started to develop draft proposals for solar pv at Park and Oxstalls campuses, this information will allow an assessment to be made of the benefits and risks of a PPA approach and whether the concept proceeds to procurement.
7.1 Ownership and oversight
To ensure this CMP successfully achieves its objectives of cutting carbon, reducing energy use and saving money, it is important that it is owned and communicated effectively within the University and adequately resourced. The table below outlines the key responsibilities for the plan’s successful delivery:
(includes champion for sustainability)
|Governing Body responsible for informing the educational character and mission of the University, approval of annual estimates of income and expenditure, ensuring the solvency of the University and safeguarding of its assets, and the appointment of senior staff.|
|Finance and General Purposes|
|Responsible for monitoring and advising Council on the|
financial health of the University, including the financial
strategy, budget setting, annual accounts, investment
activity, and consideration of capital expenditure including estates and infrastructure activity.
|University Executive Committee||Responsible for all matters associated with the development and management of the university including financial matters, estates matters and risk management. (Includes lead for Estates and for Sustainability)|
|Estates Senior Management Team||Responsible for the effective management of the|
University’s estates to provide a high quality
student experience including planned and reactive
maintenance, facilities management, and space planning.
|Library, Technology and Information|
Senior Management Team
|Responsible for the delivery of IT and library services to|
students and staff, and contributing to the optimisation of space management and University key infrastructure.
|Sustainability Committee||Advises and makes recommendations to the University|
Executive Committee on the governance and
implementation of the Sustainability Strategy and
Environmental Management System. Responsible for
monitoring sustainability improvements within the
University and receiving annual updates on progress
against carbon reduction targets for onward reporting to
University Executive Committee.
The following table identifies key individuals within the University who are responsible for ensuring this plan is delivered.
|Executive Director of Estates Strategy||Officer of University Executive Committee and Finance and General Purposes Committee responsible for the implementation of the Estates Strategy|
|Director of Estates||Responsible for the delivery of the Estates Strategy and|
CMP, holding overall responsibility for the reduction of
carbon emissions in the management, development and
refurbishment of the University’s estate.
|Director of Sustainability||Responsible for the achievement of the Sustainability|
Strategy and reporting progress to Sustainability
Committee and external stakeholders via the Annual
Sustainability Report. Identifies alignments to other
institutional issues such as wellbeing and brokers
engagement with other managers and teams.
|Sustainability Operations Manager||Responsible for the development of the CMP, monitoring|
and reporting of progress in carbon reduction. Acts as
environmental manager for the ISO 14001: 2015
environmental management system, and responsible for
reporting operational performance in the Annual
|Students Union||Responsible for supporting students whilst at university,|
having a positive impact on their academic experience, and support the development of skills so they are ready for their working life. Their Sustainability Policy includes a commitment to work with the Sustainability Team and to reduce the consumption of resources such as energy
In addition to the proposed capital expenditure and operational costs of the projects proposed, it is essential that sufficient staff time and resource is committed to properly implement these measures. At times it will be necessary to call on assistance from a number of estates colleagues
from areas such as facilities management, maintenance, energy management as well as colleagues in finance, procurement, communication, and student services.
Progress of the CMP will be monitored and reported through a number of routes:
7.2.1 Annual Sustainability Report: this report is the key means by which institutional progress on sustainability is reported to internal and external stakeholders. The report covers the period 1 August to 31 July each year, reporting a number of academic and operational metrics including water use, waste produced, scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions, use of grid supplied energy and energy generated on site.
7.2.2 Estates Management Record: energy use, water use, waste statistics and scope 1, 2 and 3 carbon emissions along with many other indicators are reported to the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) in February of each year. This information is publicly available and is used by a number of organisations to evaluate the University’s sustainability performance within
the HE sector.
7.2.3 ISO 14001: 2015 environmental management system (EMS) : the University has operated an externally assessed EMS since 2002 which includes improvement objectives around key environmental parameters such as waste, recycling, water use and scope 1 and 2 carbon emissions. Performance against these objectives is regularly reported to top management who review progress and update targets as necessary. The EMS is regularly audited by internal and external auditors.
7.2.4 Webpages: the University makes a range of environmental performance information available via a dedicated sustainability website: sustainability.glos.ac.uk. Specific links are provided to the Annual Sustainability Report as well as additional information on energy & carbon, investment & purchasing, catering, waste & water, and travel.
7.3 Programme management
The achievement of the carbon reduction targets will require close management of the identified projects as well as effective communication between teams such as Estates, IT, Sustainability and the Students Union. Specifically, there is a clear need for close collaboration between Estates and Sustainability Teams to ensure best possible use is made of detailed
monitoring and measurement of energy use.
It is therefore proposed that the Estates Management team will monitor progress against the CMP with the Executive Director for Estates Strategy reporting progress to UEC as required. Overall progress will be reported via the annual EMS Management Review and ASR.
7.4 Risk management
Over the lifetime of the CMP there are likely to be risks affecting the likelihood of projects delivering the planned carbon savings due to technical, operational financial and legal changes. The Estates Management team will maintain a risk and issues register which will be reviewed and updated regularly, and will link with the risks and opportunities section of the ISO 14001 environmental management system to update on legal and political risks.
Similarly, LTI Senior Management team will be advised of any risks potentially affecting the delivery of carbon reductions from the IT related carbon reduction projects via the annual review process.
7.5 Strategy alignment
Strategic Plan 2017‐22: sets out the vision, goals and values of the university. Sustainability is one of its 6 strategic enablers, along with the operation of an effective and efficient estate. There is also a clear acknowledgement of the University’s role as an anchor organisation in supporting stakeholders to address sustainability issues, which is supported through the RCE Severn network hosted by the University.
Sustainability Strategy 2017‐22: sets the direction for improving sustainability through five key goals, one of which is through improving business operations. One of the top two indicators of delivery on this goal is the production of this new CMP linked to the Estates Strategy.
Estates Strategy 2017‐22: confirms the commitment of the university to reducing carbon emissions whilst recognising that recent growth and changes to the estate may have increased emissions, requiring a detailed review of carbon management projects and targets.
Information Technology Strategy 2018‐22: supports the aims of the CMP through its key goal to achieve efficiencies to enable reinvestment in information capability.
There are other strategies which also have a vital role to play in supporting this CMP such as the Waste Policy, Catering Policy, Sustainable Travel Plan, Heating Policy, and Procurement Strategy. It is through concerted alignment with these strategies that long‐term, enduring carbon reductions can be achieved.
2018/19 and 2019/20 summary of projects
These projects include those that will deliver their first full year of carbon savings in 2018/19 and projects which are nil cost or can be funded externally.
saving pa (£)
|H1||Replacement of boilers at Park|
campus (Jenner, Cooke, Tyndale,
Dowty, Grace and Fullwood) plus
Clegg building at FCH
|T1||Replace diesel van with electric|
version (Nissan ev‐200)
|l1||Install loft insulation in Dunholme|
|IT1||Reduce on time for student PC|
|IT2||Roll out improved power|
management policy to all PCs and
Macs to power down monitor and
PC after set period.
|IT3||Offer lower energy PC option 65W|
in place of 80W option
|IT4||Upgrade PCs using SSD drives in|
place of mechanical disk
|H3||Assessment of insulation options|
for valves, pipes, heat exchangers,
headers in plantrooms
|C2||Install timers to chilled display|
cabinets in refectories
|l3||Install radiator reflector foil behind|
radiators on external walls of solid
wall properties at Park
|B1||Live Smart student engagement|
|CS2||Check feasibility of fitting timers to|
display equipment in Elwes
|R2||Solar photovoltaics on additional|
appropriate roofs at Park or
Oxstalls using PPA (120kWp)
|36.00||£4,100||Nil – externally funded||TBC|
|CS1||Review control strategies for all|
BMS systems at Oxstalls
2020/21 and 2021/22 summary of projects
The implementation of these projects is subject to sufficient funding being available within the maintenance budget from 2020/21 onwards. The following longlist contains details of all identified projects – when funding is available it is recommended that projects with the most rapid payback are implemented first.
|Ref||Description||Carbon saving pa (tonnes)||Cost saving pa (£)||Cost (£)||Simple payback period (years)|
|L1||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Elwes teaching centre
|L2||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Elwes communal areas, including
|L3||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Elwes reception, including
|L4||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Reynolds building, including
|L5||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Bedford building, including
|L6||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Pallas building, including
|L7||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Broadlands Lodge, Including
|L8||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Dunholme villa building, including
|L9||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Fullwood House and Lodge
building, including installation
|L10||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Jones building, including
|L11||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Broadlands villa, including
|L12||Replacement of CFLs with LEDs at|
Cornerways, including installation
|R1||Carry out remedial work on|
Oxstalls solar pv array
|H2||Check pump turndown settings to|
resolve low delta t issue for
Waterworth and Elwes boilers
|C1||Upgrade air con units in Bedford|
server room to invertor versions
|l2||Install roof insulation at Fullwood||8.70||£890||£6,500||7.30|
|l4||Loft insulation to Elwes Teaching|
Centre suspended ceiling areas,
corridors and office spaces using
200mm encapsulated pads
|l5||Ceiling void insulation to Owen|
building using 200mm
|L13||LEDs at Francis Close Hall. All|
buildings where applicable
|l6||Draughtproofing at Francis Close|
|l7||Secondary glazing at Francis Close|
|l8||Ceiling void insulation for Learning|
centre Park from Bedford building
covered way (from refectory) to
Waterworth building. Using
|l9||Secondary glazing at Park villas|
(Dunholme, Pallas, Broadlands,
|L14||LED lighting to Hardwick|
accommodation blocks; A, B & C
|L15||Upgrade to LED lighting at 6|
Oxstalls halls (chiefly replacing 38W
Appendix 2: Future project
These longer term projects are to be developed and assessed for feasibility as existing assets approach the end of their lives, as contingent refurbishment work is planned or as opportunities to align building management systems with IT power management strategies arise.
|Ref||Description||Carbon saving pa (tonnes)|
|H4||Installation of district heating pipes from Waterworth to Elwes (when Elwes boilers approach end of life)||Requires further|
|R3||Combined Heat and Power unit at Waterworth Building, Park||Requires further|
|l10||Roof/ceiling insulation at Bedford, Owen, Reynolds, Waterworth, Jones, Hall and any feasible roofs at FCH and HW||Requires further|
|IT5||IT power management strategy to identify PCs to be left on for student use out of hours and co‐ordinate with lighting and heating strategies||Requires further|
Appendix 3: Carbon management engagement matrix
An internal audit of the arrangements for carbon management, carried out in January 2017, identified the need to carry out a self‐assessment using the Carbon Trust engagement matrix. The table below is the Carbon Trust’s carbon management engagement matrix showing the elements that must be in place to score between 1 and 5 against the seven sections with the
assessed position of the University shown by using dark boxes.
In some cases the University has in place elements from a higher scoring category, these are shown by using bold text. For example, for the Data Management section, M&T is in place for buildings – this element is shown in bold for the level 5 scoring criteria.
|POLICY||RESPONSIBILITY||DATA MANAGEMENT||COMMUNICATION &|
|PROCUREMENT||MONITORING & EVALUATION|
|5 BEST|| – SMART Targets|
– Action plan
goals & regular
internally & to
|– CM is full‐time|
responsibility of a
– CM integrated in
– VC support
– Part of all job
|– Quarterly collation|
of CO2 emissions for
– Data externally
– M&T in place for:
|– All staff & students|
given formalised CM:
o Training Plan
– CM matters
o Key partners
|– Granular & effective|
mechanisms for CM
– Robust task
– Ring‐fenced fund for
|– Senior purchasers|
consult & adhere to
manual & principles
– Whole life costing
|– Senior management|
review CM process
– Core team regularly
reviews CM progress
– Published externally
– Visible board level
|4||– SMART Targets|
|– CM is full‐time|
responsibility of an
– CM integrated in to
managers, not all
|– Annual collation of|
CO2 emissions for:
– Data internally
|– All staff & students|
o Key partners
|– Regular financing for|
– Some external
– Sufficient task
– Familiarity with
– Joint procuring
|– Core team regularly|
o Profile & targets
– Climate Change
|CM is part‐time|
responsibility of a
– CM responsibility of
|– Collation of CO2|
emissions for limited
scope i.e. buildings
|– Environmental /|
energy group(s) give
|– Ad hoc financing for|
– Limited task
– No allocated
|– Whole life costing|
– Some pooling of
|– CM team review|
o Policies /
o Action Plans
|2||– No policy|
– Climate Change
|-CM is part‐time|
responsibility of an
– No departmental
|– No CO2 emissions|
– Energy data
compiled on a
|– Regular poster/|
– Staff & students
given ad hoc CM
|– Ad hoc financing for|
CM related projects
– Limited task
|– Green criteria|
– Products considered
|– Ad hoc reviews of|
CM actions progress
|1 worst||No policy|
– No Climate
|– No CM responsibility|
|– Not compiled:|
o CO2 emissions
– Estimated billing
|– No communication|
|– No internal financing|
or funding for CM
|– No Green|
– No life cycle costing
|– No CM monitoring|